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Colquitt County ANR Agent, Jeremy Kichler, is hosting a Cotton Insect Update Zoom Meeting for area growers, consultants and retailers. The update starts at noon on Friday, July 24 and will maybe last an hour. Phillip Roberts is the keynote speaker and will give an update on whitefly and other insect challenges we are currently facing in cotton.
1 hr of private and commercial pesticide credit and 1 hr of CCA credit will be offered.
Join Zoom Meeting
Growth Responses and Financial Returns from Silvicultural Treatments in Southern Pine Plantations Seminar
See the document below about a forestry continuing education program:
Unlike cotton production areas in the Mid-South, tarnished plant bug is an uncommon and sporadic pest of Georgia cotton. However, tarnished plant bug populations must be scouted as economic infestations occur in some fields each and every year. Only treat tarnished plant bugs if threshold levels are exceeded. Tarnished plant bug sprays are disruptive to beneficial insect establishment. Our primary method for scouting plant bugs is square retention. Our goal is to retain 80 percent of all first positions as we enter bloom. The square retention technique works well in pre-bloom cotton but is not as a reliable technique in blooming cotton as physiological shed confounds counts. More scouts are using sweep nets to monitor plant bugs. Sweep nets are an excellent tool for
monitoring adult plant bug populations, but the drop cloth (especially a black drop cloth) is more effective for monitoring immature plant bugs.
Adult tarnished plant bug (left) and immature tarnished plant bug in bloom (right). Images by Russ Ottens, University of Georgia and Ron Smith, Auburn University, Bugwood.org.
Effective use of the sweep net becomes difficult after bloom due in part to plant size and more emphasis should be placed on use of a drop cloth. Also be observant for both adult and immature plant bugs when making visual plant inspections; examine terminals and inside the bracts of squares, blooms, and small bolls. Also be observant for “dirty blooms”, blooms in which many of the anthers are dried and brown. Dirty blooms are an indication that plant bug (especially nymphs) are feeding on larger squares which the plant did not shed.
“Dirty Blooms”. Images by Ron Smith and Barry Freeman, Auburn University, Bugwood.org.
Clouded plant bug adult (left) and immature (right). Images by Ron Smith, Auburn University, Bugwood.org.
Tarnished plant bug thresholds can be used for clouded plant bugs, but clouded plant bugs should be counted 1.5 times when using a sweep net. Note that the threshold is higher during the third week squaring and bloom compared with the first two weeks of squaring.
Sweep Net and Drop Cloth Thresholds:
Third week of squaring through bloom: Drop Cloth: 3 plant bugs/6 row feet, Sweep Net: 15 plant bugs/100 sweeps
First 2 weeks of squaring: Drop Cloth: 1 plant bug/6 row feet, Sweep Net: 8 plant bugs/100 sweeps
As a result of great team work with the Georgia Department of Agriculture and BASF, Georgia cotton farmers have a new Liberty label allowing shortened intervals between sequential Liberty applications which can improve weed control.
Research has shown understanding the time interval between sequential post applications is one of many critical components for an effective weed management system. The figure below compares 6 inch Palmer amaranth response to sequential Liberty applications as influenced by interval between applications. Obviously, one needs to spray Liberty when the biggest pigweed in the field is 3” for complete control and in this event a follow up application can be made when the next flush of pigweed reaches 3”. With the challenging weather during 2020, spraying all weeds at 3” or less may not be practical for some fields; thus, when pigweed is too large to kill with the first application then the second application timing is important.
DO NOT MAKE MORE THAN TWO LIBERTY APPLICATIONS in a season for resistance management purposes; follow the second Liberty application 10-12 days later with a layby directed application including conventional chemistry such as Diuron + MSMA + Crop Oil or Roundup + Diuron (add Envoke with layby if morningglory or nutsedge is an issue; check carryover)!
Few critical points from the label: 1) One must have 24 (c) label in hand when making application; 2) Liberty may be applied twice over-the-top of glufosinate-tolerant cotton as long as there is at least a 5 day interval between applications; 3) Do not include tank mix partners when making two applications less than 10 days apart. 4) Do not apply more than 36 oz/A overtop of cotton per application.
Click the following link to view the Liberty 280 SL FIFRA Sec. 24(c) Special Local Need Label: Liberty 280 SL NVA 2020-04-594-0079 shortened seq interval 04-14-2020b_24c GA-20003
Dicamba (A. S. Culpepper). On June 8, 2020 the U.S. EPA released critical information on Engenia, Fexapan, and XtendiMax. The entire release can be found at https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-offers-clarity-farmers-light-recent-court-vacatur-dicamba-registrations
Please visit the website for details; however, below are the details of the order:
“Details of the Order
EPA’s order addresses sale, distribution, and use of existing stocks of the three affected dicamba products – XtendiMax with vapor grip technology, Engenia, and FeXapan.
- Distribution or sale by any person is generally prohibited except for ensuring proper disposal or return to the registrant.
- Growers and commercial applicators may use existing stocks that were in their possession on June 3, 2020, the effective date of the Court decision. Such use must be consistent with the product’s previously-approved label, and may not continue after July 31, 2020.”
Weed Control Thoughts (Use only labeled products and follow all labeled directions and restrictions):
Scenario One: Large pigweed with enough in-crop dicamba for two applications: Spray labeled Roundup + dicamba immediately, wait 7 to 10 days and then make a second application; 12 days later run the layby rig with either 1) Direx + MSMA + Crop Oil if grasses are not up or 2) Roundup + Direx if grasses are up (add Envoke with layby if morningglory or nutsedge is a problem).
Scenario Two: Large pigweed with enough in-crop dicamba for one application: Spray labeled Roundup + dicamba immediately, wait 7 to 10 days and then make a Liberty tank mix application; 12 days later run the layby rig with either 1) Direx + MSMA + Crop Oil if grasses are not up or 2) Roundup + Direx if grasses are up (add Envoke with layby if morningglory or nutsedge is a problem).
Scenario Three: Large pigweed with no dicamba available. Sequential Liberty applications will be best approach although less effective than either dicamba system above. We were able to obtain a new state label for Liberty shortening intervals between sequential applications which will improve control (sending information in blog tomorrow).
- Tavium registration was not revoked and therefore the herbicide is not impacted as of now.
- The Enlist program of herbicides are following a similar path to that of Engenia, Fexapan, and XtendiMax in the court system. No one can predict the future.
- In Georgia, we have all worked so hard to steward every pesticide and we should collectively be proud! However, this is a wake-up call in several ways. First, we must work together even harder generating sound science to preempt this type of situation in the future. Second, for those few growers who have down played the importance of using all pesticides wisely, what a wake-up call!!!!
Yesterday UGA ANR agents received this news yesterday from Dr. McCann:
Below is a link to an article which recaps what occurred in U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit the 9th District yesterday. The Federal Court overturned EPA’s approval of dicamba-based herbicides made by Bayer, BASF and Corteva Agrisciences. The ruling effectively makes it illegal for farmers to continue to use the product.
The Georgia Department of Agriculture will explore what options are available to growers in this growing season. The registration for the products were going to end in December 2020.
Given the timing and our collective investment in the safe use of these products, this is a disappointing turn of events. More will be forthcoming in the near future from the companies and GDA.
USDA will provide $ 3 billion for commodity purchase (including meat, dairy and produce to support producers and provide food to those in need. USDA will work with local food and regional distributors to deliver food to food banks, as well as community and faith-based organizations to provide food to those in need.) Food Box Program.
Direct Assistance for Farmers and Ranchers
USDA will provide $16 billion in direct payments to farmers and ranchers including:
- $9.6 billion for the livestock industry
- $5.1 billion for cattle
- $2.9 billion for dairy
- $1.6 billion for hogs
- $3.9 billion for row crop producers
- $2.1 billion for specialty crops producers
- $500 million for others crops (horticulture, aquaculture, sheep, goats, etc.)
Producers will receive a single payment determined using two calculations:
- Price losses that occurred January 1-April 15, 2020. Producers will be compensated for 85% of price loss during that period.
- Second part of the payment will be expected losses from April 15 through the next two quarters, and will cover 30% of expected losses.
The payment limit is $125,000 per commodity with an overall limit of $250,000 per individual or entity. Qualified commodities must have experienced a 5% price decrease between January and April.
Farmers who have received PPP or EIDL program funding are still eligible for Direct Assistance program funding.
Apply through your local USDA Service Center. Many remain closed so call to schedule an appointment.
Program is open to all producers regardless of size.
(Above picture is from the Peanut Fertility Checklist – UGA Peanut Quick Reference Guide 2020)
Gypsum (or landplaster, i.e. calcium sulfate) may be in short supply this year. There is no need to panic but it doesn’t hurt to review your options for dealing with this potential problem.
Why the Shortage? Coal burning powerplants that produce a lot of the “smokestack” gypsum we use on peanuts in Georgia have either switched to natural gas as a cheaper fuel source… or it has something to do with COVID-19 . Either way, or both, there has been a disruption in supply.
Are there other gypsum sources? Yes, there is USG 500, the naturally mined product, that should be available, especially in East Georgia and there may be some old ‘wet bulk” or “phosphogyp” available from Florida and maybe even some recycled wallboard. Freight/trucking cost may be a factor
depending where you are located though.
Can I use lime instead of gypsum? Yes, but lime needs to be applied before planting since the calcium in lime is not as soluble as the calcium in gypsum. So timing is important. Also if you deep turn you need to deep turn before applying lime so you don’t bury it. So placement is important. The calcium need to be in the “pegging zone” (top 4 inches). And technically, lime should only be used when you either need a pH adjustment (below 6.0) or start around 6.0 so the lime will not raise the soil pH too high.
What about “liquid lime”? There is a product currently available called “Topflow” that has been field tested at a 10 gal per acre rate, surface applied at planting. This may not provide as much calcium to the pegging zone as 1000 pound per acre of gypsum and won’t raise the soil test calcium as much but can be considered an alternative if you cannot get gypsum. Even though it is a liquid, it is still lime so it needs to be applied before or at planting.
What if I get delayed getting gypsum? Or how late is too late to put out gypsum? Gypsum should be applied at “early bloom” or approximately 30-45 days after planting. Since “peak pod fill” is around 60-90 days after planting you can still see benefit from gypsum applications made any time before 60 days after planting. It can also depend on water or irrigation since you need water to dissolve the calcium and get it through the hull into the developing kernels.
Can I put calcium out through a center pivot? Actually yes. Recent research has been conducted showing 10 gallons per acre of calcium chloride (or 20 gallons of calcium thiosulfate) through the pivot during peak pod fill (around 75 days after planting) can have some benefit. Again, this is not as good as a timely gypsum application but can be viewed as an ‘emergency” or “insurance” application. The calcium in both of these products is basically 100 % soluble and therefore can be applied during peak pod fill.
Also, calcium chloride should be the more affordable option but check on price and availability.
Does every field of peanuts in Georgia need gypsum? Probably not, so if supply is short how do you decide which fields get gypsum? First, any peanut being saved for seed should automatically receive 1000 pound per acre of gypsum, regardless of soil test calcium levels. Calcium is extremely important for germination of peanut seeds. Technically other fields should be “pegging zone” tested, i.e. soil sample 4 inches deep taken soon after peanuts emerge. If the soil test calcium (Mehlich 1 Extractant) is
500 or higher and the calcium to potassium ratio is 3:1 or higher – then the soil test calcium will be considered adequate and no gypsum will be recommended. This is based on research field trials looking at yield and grade. Research also shows that gypsum is even more important in dryland compared to under irrigation since water will be more limiting in dryland and less soil test calcium will be available.
How important is gypsum for peanut production? This probably should have been the first question answered. And the answer …. is very or extremely important! Since peanuts as a deep tap-rooted legume can fix nitrogen and scavenge residual soil phosphorous and potassium, calcium is the most critical element. Lack of calcium in the pegging zone to be absorbed through the hull can result in “pops” or no kernels which obviously reduces yield. Calcium deficiency on peanut can also lead to pod rot. And again, calcium is critical to germination for peanuts saved for seed for next year.