Category Archives: Peanuts

Peanuts Cracking

Dryland peanuts are coming up in the northwest part of the county. This is where we have had more rain. We’re talking about thrips, herbicides and some disease issues now. Below is a graph from UGA Extension Peanut Entomologist Dr. Mark Abney on latest thrips counts:

Thrips numbers on our traps have remained relatively steady for the last 3 weeks, though we did see a spike last week in Colquitt County. My first thrips trials are just now emerging from the ground, and I have not heard any reports of thrips control problems on early planted peanut as of today.

I have had questions this week about rates of imidacloprid for in-furrow applications. I recommend the upper end of the rate range for whichever formulation a grower is using….We should NOT be doubling the rate or cutting the rate in half. Be sure to check the label of the product you are using as rates vary by formulation.

Weed Control

We may not have as much Valor as preemerge out there since we are dry and concern of no activation. Where we have Valor on the ground with good activation (0.5 – 0.75″ within 7 days), it usually gets us through our “at cracking ” treatments until we use Cadre. If we don’t have Valor, we will need to be gearing up for our cracking spray 15 – 25 days after planting. But we only need to apply ‘cracking’ sprays if weeds have come up.

Disease Control

The only note to make is this week’s rainfall this week could help to cool soils, at least in the short term, and reduce risk to Aspergillus crown rot of peanut.

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Disease & Nematode Management Considerations For 2017 Peanut Planting

Peanut growers can use a different products at planting time for the management of diseases and nematodes. Decisions as too what product to use over another, or to use a product at all, can be very confusing. Fighting seedling disease used to be simple- all growers used a fungicide seed treatment, and if they wanted some “stand insurance” they could also spray Abound in-furrow. Today, in-furrow applications are important considerations for the management of tomato spotted wilt, seedling diseases, Cylindrocladium black rot, white mold, and nematodes, not to mention thrips! Below are management options for the growers put together by UGA Extension Pathologists Dr. Bob Kemerait, Dr. Tim Brenneman and Dr. Albert Culbreath:

Note: The rates provided here are on a “per/A” basis. Typically, the full rate can be placed in single rows; the rate is typically halved per twin row. For example, Abound, 6.0 fl oz/A in-furrow for single rows becomes Abound, 3.0 fl oz/A in each of the twin rows:

Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

A number of products can be used to manage thrips on peanuts. However, only one product, Thimet (ai: phorate) is effective in reducing the risk to this disease. The reduction in risk to tomato spotted wilt is not related to the thrips control that it provides, rather is seems to be associated with the response of the plant to Thimet. Thimet likely activates defense-response genes in the peanut plant that help to protect the plant from the virus. Growers who want to plant early (before May 1), or who want to use cultivars with spotted wilt risk points greater than those of Georgia-06G, might especially want to consider to using Thimet for management of tomato spotted wilt.

Management of Seedling Diseases

Peanut seed and young seedlings are susceptible to attack from a number of fungal pathogens. The two most important fungal pathogens causing death of peanut seedings in Georgia are Rhizoctonia solani and Aspergillus niger. Fungicide seed treatments are a critical tool to manage seed rots and seedling diseases; currently nearly all seed is treated with Dynasty PD. Dynasy PD is composed of azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, and mefenoxam. However, growers can also protect the developing plants from seedling diseases with in-furrow fungicide applications of fungicides like Abound (5.7-11.4 fl oz/A), Proline (5.7 fl oz/A), and Evito (2.3-3.5 fl oz/A). These fungicides are typically used to compliment seed already treated with a fungicide seed treatment.

Aspergillus Crown Rot

The most effective in furrow spray for stand establishment has been Abound, although Proline also has activity on these pathogens and Evito is labeled for this use as well. The benefits of these products have not been as consistent in recent years, and research is underway to determine the factors involved.

Management of Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) and early-season white mold

Proline (5.7 fl oz/A) applied in-furrow has been an important treatment for the management of CBR. Though this disease has been less widespread in recent years, an application of Proline in-furrow is still useful where there is a threat of CBR. When favorable conditions, such as very warm weather, occur early in the season, in-furrow applications of Proline also offer some protection from early-season white mold. The extent of the protection is likely less than that provided by banded applications of Proline 3-5 weeks after planting. Decisions to use Proline in-furrow should be made based upon a) risk to CBR, and b) risk to early-season white mold (although there are effective alternatives for white mold).

Mycelium and sclerotia (yellow bee bee’s) from white mold

Management of Nematodes

Nematode-resistant cultivars continue to hold up well against even high populations of root knot nematodes. However, growers electing to plant a susceptible cultivar like Georgia-06G in fields infested with the peanut root-knot nematode should consider the use of a nematicide. Popular nematicides for peanut production in Georgia include Telone II (4.5-6 gal/A), Velum Total (18 fl oz/A) and AgLogic 15G (7 lb/A). To prevent injury to seed and seedlings, fumigation with Telone II should occur 10-14 days prior to planting and when soil conditions are not too dry (powder) nor too wet (mud). Fumigation with Telone II can provide excellent control of nematodes but DOES NOT control thrips. Growers who use Telone II must still apply something for management of thrips.

Velum Total is a combination of fluopyram for management of nematodes and also imidicloprid for management of thrips. Growers who use Velum Total do not need to add any additional thrips control product in the open furrow. (Note that imidicloprid does not reduce the risk to tomato spotted wilt.) Also, use of Velum Total does provide additional early-season management of leaf spot diseases. The extent of this protection from leaf spot is such that growers should be able to skip the 30-day after planting fungicide application for leaf spot, unless they have planted a very susceptible cultivar like ‘Georgia-13M’ or TUFRunnerTM’511’.

A question that often arises is, “If I use Velum Total, do I get any protection against seedling diseases as well?” The “bottom line” to this question is that use of Velum Total should complement a seed treatment and be good “stand insurance” and we would not add anything else. The biggest factor by far to reduce the impact of seedling disease is the quality of the seed and putting that seed in the right soil conditions at the right time.

AgLogic 15G (7 lb/A) is for management of thrips and nematodes. AgLogic does not reduce the risk to tomato spotted wilt. The rate is lower than what was historically used for Temik 15G (10 lb/A). Additional research is needed to assess the efficacy of the 7 lb/A rate on management of nematodes. In high risk field it may be advisable to use a combination of these nematicide options.

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Planting Peanuts

A few growers have started planting peanuts late this week as subsoil moisture comes more of an issue. Most growers will want to pull the trigger next week. We’re planting right now with some fungicide and inoculant in furrow. Here is a few pointers from UGA Extension Agronomist, Dr. Scott Monfort and Dr. Scott Tubbs:

Soil Temperature

It is recommended that the average daily soil temperature remain above 68 degrees for 3 consecutive days and without cold temperatures in the forecast for the next week before making the decision to start planting peanut. With a warm winter so far, the temperatures had been in the “acceptable” range of conditions … during the last week of March.

armer temperatures are expected to return during the week of April 10-16, and I anticipate the 4-inch soil temperature will warm quickly to a point acceptable for planting by the middle of that week. There are no other cool spells showing in the extended weather forecast through April 21, so I anticipate peanut planting should be in favorable conditions sometime next week including adequate soil moisture because of this past week’s rainfall.

It is important to watch for additional rainfall in the forecast, especially under non-irrigated conditions, in order to activate herbicides after planting. Even with soil temperatures above 68 degrees, it will often take peanuts 7-14 days to emerge from the ground in these conditions (with cooler night temperatures still causing some fluctuations in soil temperatures). In ideal conditions, growers would want to plant with adequate moisture, sustained 68 degrees at the 4-inch soil depth, no cool temperatures expected in the 10 day forecast, but some rain expected within one week of planting in order to ensure optimal peanut emergence and herbicide activation to give the best possible growing conditions from the beginning. Hopefully we can get some peanuts in the ground a few days on either side of Easter this year and catch a rain the following week to get this season off to a great start.

Inoculants

Last year was a very hot and dry year. In those conditions, the survivability of the living Bradyrhizobia bacteria needed to inoculate peanuts is generally reduced. Thus, there may less than adequate nodulation of peanut in some fields or some parts of fields if relying solely on native soil Bradyrhizobia to infect the roots of peanut for N-fixation this season. This is true even if planting in short rotation where peanut was planted within the last few years.

I would recommend growers strongly consider the investment in a peanut inoculant at-planting this year, especially in fields that did not have any cover crop residue on them last year to minimize direct heat impact and reduce evaporation of soil moisture in the upper portion of the soil profile. It has been stated before by my predecessors and colleagues, an inoculant application is one of the most cost-effective “insurance policies” at a grower’s disposal.

Depending on the product used and contract price received for peanuts, it usually takes in the neighborhood of 100 lb/ac yield increase to cover the cost of the product. It is common in my research trials and in reviewing research from colleagues to get greater than 100 lb/ac yield increase on average over multiple years of trials even in a standard rotation. More importantly is to consider the cost of NOT applying an inoculant and having a nodulation failure where there is not adequate N-fixation. The cost of applying the amount of N needed by peanut would greatly exceed the cost of applying an inoculant over the course of many, many years. The risk of not getting a return on investment for an inoculant compared to the risk of potentially losing a large proportion of yield potential one year is not an equal level of risk in my opinion.

Keep in mind that the product is listed on the label to be delivered at around 1.0 fl oz per 1,000 linear row feet (may differ slightly depending on which product is selected). This is developed for single row application! Inoculant application is not like adjusting seeding rate, where you are pulling half of the amount out and moving it over to the adjacent twin furrow. With an inoculant, the applied amount needs to be per furrow according to label instructions. Therefore, a twin row planting inoculant application will double the amount of inoculant applied compared to a single row planting. I have no data at this time to support using a half-rate of inoculant per furrow to keep the total application rate per acre the same as a single row planting.

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December Row Crop Disease Update

A few things to think about with regards to disease and nematode management in preparation for the 2017 field season.

La Nina:  Our UGA Extension climatologist Pam Knox has good information available on our current conditions, but here are my thoughts:

We are currently in a “weak” La Nina situation, “weak” because the equatorial waters of the cost of Ecuador are more than a half degree COOLER than normal.  As best I can tell, the waters have been about 7/10 of a degree cooler which barely qualifies as a La Nina (as opposed to last year where we had a robust and sure-enough El Nino).  So what does this mean? During La Nina years, the Southeast tends to (“tends to” means more often than not, but not always..) experience warmer and drier winters. Because we have a weak La Nina, this forecast could change.

Pigweed seedhead in broccoli before Thanksgiving. We are yet to have frost to knock back pigweed growth.

Pigweed seedhead in broccoli before Thanksgiving. We are yet to have frost to knock back pigweed growth.

How does our current “La Nina” impact our recommendations?

  1.  Drier is not a good thing as it may mean we don’t fill up irrigation ponds for next year.  It my mean we have a lot of trouble establishing cover crops this fall.
  2.  Warmer temperatures may mean that kudzu, volunteer peanuts, corn, cotton-regrowth, etc. pathogens (like those that cause soybean rust and southern corn rust) may survive and increase longer than they would with an earlier “killing” frost.  Also, as long as the crops and volunteers are active in the field, nematode populations can continue to increase and build.  This will lead to larger populations for next season. Once the plants are killed, the nematodes can no longer feed. Once soil temps drop below 65F, the activity of the todes drops off as well.
  3.  We may get some very cold weather soon, so we may not need to worry that much; however the general prediction is that we will have a warmer winter.
  4.  The weather this winter will have some effect on TSWV and insects for next year.  It remains to be seen what and how… but it will impact them.

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Peanut Harvest & Row Crop Disease Update

Boston Peanut

Boston Peanut

Golden Peanut in Meigs

Golden Peanut in Meigs

After afternoon showers and rain last week, we are really getting back to picking this week. Growers are also wide open on defoliating cotton. I saw some cotton being picked yesterday.

I visited our buying points this week and looked at grades and other issues. Thankfully, we are not having many Seg 2 burrower bug hits as last year and the year before. Between both buying points, I only know of one known burrowing bug Seg 2. In every other Seg 2 case, they’ve turned around and cleaned them and they were fine.

Grades are probably a little down this year compared to last, but are definitely not bad. Many good grades overall and low percentage of our sound splits and other kernels (pops). We could be pulling the trigger early on the some of the fields. Almost all growers are checking maturity twice in fields before digging, and many have checked more than two times. We’ve not seen maturity develop at a normal pace with our dryland peanuts which has made digging decisions tough. With more peanuts in the ground, growers are having to dig when they have help, or wagons are available, or weather permits. Vine condition is also a factor in our decision at this time. Overall, we’ve had good harvest conditions this week. Even with afternoon storms or showers, sunny days have been able to dry peanuts quickly.

Collecting grading samples at Boston Peanut

Collecting grading samples at Boston Peanut

UGA Extension Pathologist Dr. Bob Kemerait has this information on current disease issues:

Peanuts

Harvest is well under way by this time, but disease issues still affect peanuts that won’t be harvested for another three weeks or more. I have seen some fields where harvest is approaching and where white mold (stem rot) is still active, and I have recommended growers late in the season apply a mixture of tebuconazole and chlorothalonil to finish the season (both products have a 14-day preharvest interval). Other white mold products could also be applied (check preharvest interval first), but with time running out in the season, the value of tebuconazole is certainly a consideration.

Late Leafspot

Late Leaf Spot

I have also observed where leaf spot, especially late leaf spot, is aggressive late in the season, primarily on a susceptible variety like ‘Georgia-13M’. If less than two weeks to go before digging, it is doubtful anything should be applied (or legally can be applied). If peanuts are 30 days or more away from harvest, then the grower can mix a pint of chlorothalonil with 5.5 fl oz/A of Alto. If harvest is more than 14 days away from harvest, the grower can mix 5-10 fl oz/A Topsin with a pint of chlorothalonil. Fields where defoliation from leaf spot diseases has reached 50% or more and have not yet reached the optimal digging date should be considered for an early digging.

Soybeans

Soybean producers in southern Georgia have experienced losses to Asian soybean rust this year; however it appears that most have successfully protected their crop with judicious fungicide applications. MORE IMPORTANTLY, I have observed a SIGNIFICANT amount of frogeye leaf spot (Cercpospora sojina) disease in a number of fields this year; something I have not seen in many years. I am not sure why this is so; however it is something we will need to watch again next season as well. Additionally, I am seeing pre-mature defoliation to Cercospora blight (Cercospora kikuchii) in a number of fields; this disease often results in purple stain of the soybean seed. Cercospora blight is diagnosed, in part, by the prominent loss of leaves in the top of the plant leaving only the petioles, reaching like bony fingers to the sky.

Cotton

Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas citrii pv malvacearum) continues to cause concern to many growers in the state. From your reports, reports from our consultants, and from my own observations, it is clear that bacterial blight can be found in a number of fields across the Coastal Plain. Classic symptoms or bacterial blight on leaves, bracts, bolls, stems and petioles are fairly easy to diagnose; still symptoms of other diseases may inadvertently be diagnosed as “bacterial blight”. 

It is my belief, based upon my observations and discussions with a number of experienced individuals, that losses to this disease are likely to be small and even negligible in many fields. Finding a little bit of disease in a field is an important contribution to understanding the occurrence of bacterial blight in 2016; but incidence alone does not mean significant yield loss.

Certainly there are some fields, especially in extreme SW Georgia, were boll rots appear to be closely associated with bacterial blight and losses are likely to occur. Effective management of bacterial blight by a grower revolves around variety selection (we are composing such a list for Georgia cotton producers now) and management of crop debris/residue as the pathogen can overwinter in such. Crop rotation and burying of crop debris can help to minimize the development and spread of the disease in upcoming seasons.

Bacterial Blight

Bacterial Blight

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Digging & Picking Peanuts

picking-diggingpeanuts-017

If there was anything done in the field this week, it has been digging and picking. We really got heavy digging last week, and many of those peanuts have already been picked. Our conditions have overall been good. If anything, we are worried about it getting a little dry for digging. Some irrigated peanuts have been watered to soften up dirt.

We had lots of rain in forecast this week, but we really didn’t get any. Early in the week, we were cloudy and this stalled picking a day or so as it took longer for peanuts to dry. We have been sunny for the past 3 days however, and growers are super busy now.

picking-diggingpeanuts-020

picking-diggingpeanuts-014

peanuts-dug-2016-001

Peanut Maturity

So many of our o6G’s – especially irrigated – are coming out of the ground between 130 and 140 days. I’ve talked with other agents around us who are seeing the same thing. UGA Peanut Agronomist Dr. Scott Monfort has also reported peanuts ready at this time also. He says GA 09B may be a little earlier than 06G with many of the other High Oleic varieties running near 140-150 days. GA 14N may be 145 to 150 days.

For our dryland crop, we are seeing results from extreme drought and heat on the peanut boards. We will see peanuts with varying color, peanuts turning loose in the hull, and insect damage. In dryland situations, the Tropical Storm made plants look better, but no necessarily pods. Dr. Monfort says some fields will be on the early due to lack of blooming in latter part of growing season. With moisture running low for advance, we are starting to look at vine condition in the field.

Split Crop

When we see a “split crop” it is not easy to determine when to dig. Dr. Monfort says that typically, a profile that is split evenly, we make the decision to dig on the leading edge. But, if the leading edge is minimal compared to the fruit load behind the “split”, then the decision is more difficult.

peanutmaturity-splitcrop-002

**And last, do not take risk in contaminating good quality peanuts with non-irrigated peanuts that might have aflatoxin (dryland corners.) A few bad pods can cause a trailer load to move to SEG 2 or SEG 3.

 

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Peanuts: Terminating Fungicide Sprays

We are starting to dig some peanuts this week in the county. Profiles are showing high percentage of mature, gradable peanuts. This week, it seems as profiles have slowed and not much change. One of the most difficult decisions is terminating our fungicide sprays. Some fields still show hits of white mold. Remember that if we get 60-70% control of soilborne disease, this is considered good – especially fields prone to WM.

peanuthullscrape-001

Here is an update from UGA Extension Pathologist Dr. Bob Kemerait on cutting off fungicide sprays based on our profile charts:

  1. Grower is 4 or more weeks from harvest and DOES NOT currently have disease problems in the field:
    • Suggestion – I recommend the grower apply at least one more fungicide for atleast leaf spot control.
    • Suggestion – Gen the low cost of tebuconazole, the grower may  consider applying a tank-mix of tebuconazole + chlorothalonil for added insurance of white mold and leaf spot.
    • NOTE: If white mold is not an issue, then the grower should stick with a leaf spot spray only.
  2. Grower is 4 or more weeks away from harvest and HAS disease problems in the field:
    • If leaf spot – Grower should insure that any fungicide applied has systemic/curative activity. If a grower wants to use chlorothalonil, then they would mix a product like thiophanate methyl (Toppsin M) or cyproconazole (Alto) with chlorothalonil. Others may consider applying Priaxor, if they have not already applied it twice this season.
    • If white mold – Grower should continue with fungicide applications for management of WM. If they have completed their regular WM program, they should extens the program, perhaps with a tebuconazole/chlorothalonil mix.
    • If underground white mold – Underground white mold is difficult to control. Applying a white mold fungicide ahead of irrigation or rain, or applying at night can help increase disease management.
  3. Grower is 3 weeks or less from harvest and DOES NOT current have a disease issue. Good news! This grower should be good-to-go for the remainder of the season, and no more fungicides are required.
  4. Grower is 3 weeks or less from harvest and DOES have a problem with disease.
    • If leaf spot – A last leaf spot fungicide application may be beneficial. If leaf spot if very severe, a last application will not help.
    • If white mold – It is likely beneficial to apply a final white mold fungicide. If harvest is 2 weeks away or less, then it is unlikely that a fungicide will be any benefit.
    • NOTE: If harvest is likely delayed by threat from a hurricane or tropical storm, then the grower may reconsider recommendation for end-of-season fungicide applications.

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