Category Archives: Citrus

Satsuma Grower’s Fall Update – October 5th


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September 16, 2016 · 6:43 PM

Sunburned Satsumas


Lowndes County Agent Jake Price coordinates our Satsuma production updates and manages a rootstock variety trial below Valdosta. He has come across some sunburned fruit I want to share.

Portions of the fruit, (blossom end mostly) are turning yellowish orange. This is from intense sunlight causing a burn on exposed fruit. This can cause the cells underneath the burn to dry up and reduce fruit quality. The fruit I have dissected do not seem to be dry underneath the burn at this time but that could change. There is really nothing that can be done about this. There has been some work done using kaolin clay to cover the fruit but it is washed away with rain so it doesn’t seem practical.



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Satsuma Fertilization

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Blooms & new growth

Blooms & new growth

Thanks to Lowndes County Agent Jake Price who did a good job coordinating Monday’s Satsuma Meeting. We talked about citrus greening, fungal disease, and fertility programs.

We’re actually a few weeks past beginning bloom here, and with a warmer winter, we are seeing lots of terminal growth this year already. These trees are in their 2nd and 3rd year, and the fruit will not quite be tasty yet. Many of these blooms will actually be removed. Limbs of Owari grow outward, and many of the fruit can touch the ground with a younger tree. All of the varieties are self-fruitful, so no pollinizer trees are required. Bees may also help, but are not required.

Fertility Program

Our pH needs to around 6.0. A wider range is between 5.5 and 7.0. We need to lime if we are 5.5 or lower. In this range, nutrients are most available for uptake for Satsuma.

When we fertilize, much of our rates are based on N, since they are considered ‘heavy feeders.’ We start fertilizing at

  1. First sign of budbreak in the Spring (late Feb/early March)
  2. Fruit swell (May)
  3. Fruit are 1 inch in diameter (June)

We don’t want to use fertilizer with N from September to mid-February since this could comprismise cold hardiness.

We can use either a complete fertilizer (8-8-8) or a straight N fertilizer (34-0-0), or a combination. We only use a straight fertilizer if soil tests and leaf analysis show other elements are not necessary. Here is a general baseline N recommendation for Satsumas of different ages from research in Alabama:


Poultry Litter

Some planting this year will use poultry litter. The fertilizer value of poultry litter depends on many factors like moisture, temperature, feed rations, storage, and handling. It is best to check analysis of poultry litter. Poultry liter has an approximate analysis of 3-3-2 (60lbN – 60lb p2O5 – 40lbK2O). Here is some poultry liter rates from UGA Extension Fruit Scientist Dr. Erick Smith:


Satsuma Meeting in Lowndes County

Satsuma Meeting in Lowndes County



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Citrus Program – April 25th

Lowndes County Agent Jake Price has put together another citrus program for Monday, April 25th at the Lowndes County Extension Office. The main topic of discussion is forming a citrus growers association. There will be a $15 registration for a meal, so RSVP by April 20th.


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Cold Weather Welcome

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We had a few frosts this week. With record warm temperatures in December, this cold is going to help some of our winter crops claim some chill hours. We’ve also been having plenty of rain as El Nino was predicted. Here are some screen shots of rain, temperatures and chill hours from the Dixie weather station from You can see how much lower chill hours are as were last winter this far. The ’12 to ’13 winter was also warm.


Chill Hours





Small Grain/Forage

Our forage crops look okay and hearing some good reports. We need to watch some of our forage now as cool temperatures are going to come back this weekend and next week. Oats, of course, are more susceptible to the cold damage.  Some cattlemen are fertilizing forage after heavy grazing to encourage new growth. Ryegrass is one of our small grains that has 3-way split, with one fertilization through the winter. Everything else we fertilize once at planting and then before spring to encourage more tiller growth. We may want to be careful with management inputs during these upcoming cold hits. Below is the forage recommendation fact sheet from the UGA Soil Test Handbook:


Here are some oats I looked at today. Overall, they look good. Fields are wet and we need to watch for compaction. And we need to watch our grazing. To determine when to pull cows off, we look at the node or joint inside the stem of the plant. This is the growing point, and it feels like a bump or bee bee inside the stem. We don’t want them to graze lower than the growing point. In the picture below the joint is between my thumb and the roots.

Joint in oats

Joint in oats

I also see a little crown rust showing up. These orange/red pustules on the leaf resemble that of aphid feeding. The rust pustules will rub off on your finger. They are also raised above the leaf.

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Pustules of crown rust in oats


Crown Rust

Aphid Feeding

Aphid Feeding

Crown rust will cut back on yield even in grazing, so we have to graze heavily when rust is seen so we remove the leaf tissue where spores land.


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Some crops are not going to appreciate the cold. Thomas County has 2,500 citrus trees in commercial production now – mostly Satsumas. The biggest challenge for citrus north of Florida is cold protection. Certain plants handle cold more than others. Satsumas have the greatest degree of cold hardiness. Bearing satsumas can withstand temperatures as low as 19º to 20ºF without considerable wood damage. (Citrons, lemons and limes, on the contrary, are most easily killed by freezing temperatures – as low as upper 20s.)

I took a picture of these satsumas Tuesday morning. The temperature that morning was 29 degrees. Once temperatures get down to 24 and 25, they will cut on the irrigation as a form of cold protection. Previous cool weather allowed the plants for some cold acclimation. Cold acclimation is very important for citrus. The sudden, hard freezes in November 2014 hurt us so much more, because plants were essentially not ready for the cold. A few nights in the upper 20s is good for our citrus.

Cold damage always takes some time to show up. Lowndes County Agent, Jake Price, gave a good talk on cold damage at the Satsuma meeting this week. There are a few types of cold damage we may see. Sometimes damage occurs on the leaves only. If damage is on the stem, it is worse. If the plant incurs cold damage on the leaves, it may drop those leaves. This is a good sign since the plant has to be alive to drop the leaves. If cold damage occurs and leaves do not drop, this is not good news. Here are some pictures of cold damage. The darker green is cold damage:


Cold damage on Satsuma – Photo by Jake Price



Cold damage on Satsuma – Photo by Jake Price

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2016 Panhandle Satsuma Meeting


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January 15, 2016 · 1:05 PM

Satsuma Production Meeting – September 9th

Lowndes County Agent Jake Price has put together another Satsuma Production and Marketing in South GA and North FL. It’ll be held at the Lowndes County Extension Office at 2102 East Hill Avenue, Valdosta, GA 31601. (229) 333-5185. Below is a flyer:


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