Cool Season Pasture Establishment Tips

FaithPittman-Weed 030

It’s been very dry for planting our grazing. Some grazing has been planted like this one but many growers are waiting for the rain. The rain is predicted for this week. This field was planted the first week of October. It’s Horizon 306 variety of oats. They harrowed, spread chicken liter, dressed again, then drilled in seed. Here is some information from UF Soil & Nutrient Extension Specialist Dr. Cheryl Mackowiak:

Preparing Land

Prepare land for winter grazing by closely grazing or mowing down the existing pasture in the fall, prior to planting. This results in less water, nutrient, and light competition with the emerging cool-season forages. You can also till an area for producing cool-season forages. Forages started in tilled soil will grow faster and often outperform over-seeded forages. A prepared seedbed minimizes competition for resources and during cooler periods, the exposed soil will warm more than soil under residues.

pH/Lime

Target soil pH to a range from 5.5 to 6.5. If you find that your soil is near the low (acidic) end of the scale, consider applying lime. However, do not apply lime within a month of your fertilizer application, as you may increase nitrogen volatilization (N loss) and tie-up more soil phosphorous (P), leading to less available fertilizer for the plants. If you have not limed yet, you might consider waiting until winter, or before the spring transition into summer forages.

Fertilization

For cool-season grasses in Florida & SW Georgia, 30 lbs N/acre is recommended at or near planting, then another 40 to 50 lbs N/ac after the plants have established (beginning to branch or tiller). If you want greater clover competition, apply less N (30 to 50 lbs near planting and no additional application). Under grazing, you might find that applying another 30 to 50 lbs N/acre in early spring is required, particularly if there are leaching rains, or livestock are not redistributing excrement uniformly across the pasture. If El Nino conditions prevail through the 2016 winter/spring, you may find yourself under flooded conditions. Annual ryegrass and white clover survive saturated soils better than most other Florida cool-season forage options. Saturated soils will also lose N via denitrification (gaseous loss). Do not apply additional N fertilizer until the soils have adequately drained.

FaithPittman-Weed 031Planting Dates

Planting now through mid-November ensures well-established plants with deep root systems to capture nutrients that may leach during large rain events. Also, managing grazing to retain adequate forage (3 inches or more stubble height or grazing to remove only half of your canopy height) will insure adequate rooting mass and depth, in order to capture soil nutrients deeper in the soil profile and promote stronger, more resilient plants and faster regrowth.

Keep in mind that the fertilizer investment made for cool-season forages will be returned in animal gains and a healthier pasture. The root mass from winter forages decomposes in early summer, contributing organic matter and slow-release nutrients to the soil that will help support the summer pasture.

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