Monthly Archives: August 2015

Soybean Stink Bugs

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Immature Redbanded Stinkbug

Immature Redbanded Stinkbug

We are now looking at stink bugs in soybeans. I’m seeing green and southern green, but brown stinkbugs can also be an issue. There are two thresholds we distinguish: Early and late reproductive growth stage. The best way to check is take a sweep net and sweep 25 times. I’m seeing lots of immature stink bugs. Here is a Redbanded stink bug Dr. Roberts helped me identify. These are seen here but mostly a problem in Louisiana and Mid-South states.


  • Bloom to Mid Pod-Fill: 3 stink bugs in 25 sweeps OR 0.33 stink bugs per 1 foot row.
  • After Mid Pod-Fill: 6 stink bugs in 25 sweeps OR 1 stink bug per 1 foot row.

The separating line for threshold is going to be drawn around R4 & R5. R4 is when ponds begin to elongate. At R5 or beginning seed, you can feel the seed in the pod. Here is a chart of soybean reproductive growth stages:


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Filed under Entomology, Soybeans

Wet Winter Predicted

Seminole Crop E News

 Just back from the 2015 Southern Climate Consortium Working Group Meeting and the biggest news of the day was that all signs point to a SIGNIFICANT El Nino event for the southeastern US this fall and winter. 

Here’s part of the group on a field trip to Jud Greene’s farm. He’s showing some of his new Ga 13M peanuts.


 Here are take-away points.

A.  There is a high probability that we will be cooler and wetter this fall and winter.

B.  We could start to see more “wet” as early as next month. Especially November through March.

C.  Growers should NOT delay harvest as wet weather later may keep them out of the fields entirely.

D.  Growers should not delay establishing cover crops.

E.  Growers should be aware that early corn planting next year might be affected.

F.  Could be tough to put out Telone II in the…

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Slime Flux

Here are some loblolly and shortleaf pines at a plantation house. We went to check trees since many have died over the past few years. Many of these trees are very old and UGA Extension Forestry Specialist Dr. David Moorhead says these pines do have a number of years where they reach and start dying. We’ve also had dry seasons (’10 & “11) followed by rain seasons (’12 – ’14) that are impacted hardwood trees and may be causing issues in pines also.

Shortleaf Pine

Only one tree in this stand was actually declining at this time. The needles were starting to turn red in the crown (tree leaning). At the base of this shortleaf is a foam substance with small insects around. The foam sort of disappears as you touch it. It is the result of slime flux or bacterial wetwood. This is something more common on hardwoods but can also impact pines. It is a bacterial that infects when the tree is under some sort of stress. The foam sometimes has a nasty odor. This shortleaf is well over 100 years old too.

Slime Flux and Wetwood has more information on this publication.

Bacterial Wetwood

Bacterial Wetwood

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Filed under Disease, Forestry

Row Crop Disease Update

We have a lot of attention on white mold in peanuts now. This has definitely been a white mold year. I’ve noticed tomato spotted wilt also. Here is a field last week abnormally high TSWV, especially considering their planting date and at plant insecticides. Below are comments from UGA Extension Pathologist Dr. Bob Kemerait:

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  1. WHITE MOLD ON PEANUTS has been EXTREME this year for many growers because of prolonged, very warm temperatures and, at times, adequate rainfall.  NO PROGRAM will stop all white mold, BUT your program should be able to CONTAIN “hits” of white mold to a few plants and not to long streaks in the field.
    Angular Leaf Spot

    Angular Leaf Spot

    Angular leaf spot and bacterial blight of cotton have been unusually common this year, though largely confined to SW Georgia.  I am now receiving reports of some findings east of I-75.

  3. Target spot of cotton is now developing, quickly in some areas.  Cotton beyond the 6th week of bloom is likely safe.  NOTE:  If you know of fields with target spot, please let me know as I need to collect isolates.
  4. Still no Asian soybean rust found in Georgia, though I expect it at any time.  Any of our soybean crop that has not reached R6/full seed growth stage is still vulnerable if the diseases arrives. 
  5. Further notes on white mold:  A)  Growers should consider prolonging their white mold programs, perhaps adding mixes of tebuconazole and chlorothalonil at the end.  B) The labeled rate of tebuconazole is 7.2 fl oz/A (not a pint)  C) GOOD NEWS!  Cooler morning temperatures forecast this week (mid 60s in Tifton) coupled with a drier air mass should help to SLOW the development of white mold.  D) Dryland fields may have less-than-desired white mold control IF rains have not been timely to more fungicides to the crown of the plant.  This is NOT the fault of the fungicide.
  6. Tomato Spotted Wilt

    Tomato Spotted Wilt

    Tomato Spotted Wilt:  “Honey, I’m baaaaaaaaaak…….” .. For the third year in a row, we are seeing an increase in Spotted wilt disease.  We will discuss this more at (grower meetings).  Dr. Culbreath and I visited a field last week in Evans County where the incidence of TSWV was ~65%. 

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Filed under Cotton, Disease, Peanuts, Soybeans

Yellow Pecan Aphids

I’ve been hearing reports of aphids and some mites for a while now. I was in this orchard last week when I saw the bright yellow spots inside the veins of the leaves. Yellow aphids may be present in orchards throughout the season, but populations are usually higher in April, May and then again in August.

August is a critical month for pecan development as the trees are inducing their female flowers. UGA Extension Horticulturalist Dr. Lenny Wells says while flower induction is driven primarily by the effect of crop load on the tree, additional stresses like drought, insects, disease, sunlight, etc. in August can significantly reduce the following year’s crop.

In early season, we can rely on beneficials to suppress populations. Once we move to late summer, we need to be scouting for aphids. Below is a picture of two yellow aphids I saw under these leaves. These are different immature stages of the yellow aphid. The larger aphid is the last instar. The other is younger.

Immature Yellow Aphids

Immature Yellow Aphids


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UGA College of Ag Show CAES 2015


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August 24, 2015 · 9:04 PM

Spider Mites In Peanuts

Last night at the Young Farmer’s Meeting I got reports of spider mites around Pavo. We went out this morning and confirmed real small spots with active spider mites. The spots were very small and recent rains may have helped keep them down. With a couple of small hits, we were going to watch these areas since we still have 20 – 50 days to go.

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However, in another field, we caught a much larger area newly infested with two-spotted spider mite. You can see some of the yellowing or stippling in the photo above. These are new, active infestations. We also saw the typical symptoms where the spider mites damage on the edge and kill the plants then spread out. The early hits appears yellowish from the road as if manganese deficiency. Once you walk out, its easy to see the spider mites’ webbing. Here’s Charles McMinn finding the initial hit.

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Here is an up close of the webbing.

Two-spotted spider mites with webbing

Two-spotted spider mites with webbing


Although bifintherin has spider mites on its label, UGA does not recommend spraying ANY pyrethroid. We will see a short term kill, but they will come back once beneficial population is knocked out. UGA Extension Entomologist Dr. Mark Abney says we are better off not to spray anything than use a pyrethroid for spider mites. We need to use a miticide for treatment, such as Comite or Omite. Keep in mind that the miticide has to contact the spider mites. The Comite label will say to use 20 gal of water / acre with ground equipment. Also, we are not going to kill eggs, so these fields need to be checked 10 days or so after treatment.

With less rain expected this coming week, we need to watch for spider mites. With dry weather, they are going to be an issue. We have enough time for peanuts to go for them to cause a problem. Make sure you scout fields.

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Filed under Entomology, Peanuts

Pond Weeds – Maidencane & Southern Watergrass

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Here are a few pond weeds we looked at last week. Maidencane is standing in the back, southern watergrass and algae are in front of it. Maidenane and southern watergrass are both emergent plants. These are rooted plants that usually grow on the shoreline and stand above the surface of the water. These ponds are very shallow, and the plants can grow in the middle. The stems of emergent plants are somewhat stiff or firm.


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Southern Watergrass

Southern watergrass is a perennial that growers in shallow water. It’s leaves can be underwater (to 3 feet), floating or in dense colonies that can rise to 12 inches in height on stems to 3 feet long. Leaves are more long and narrow.

Maidencane is hard to tell apart from other grass weeds. It’s leaves are long, narrow and tapered (up to 12 inches long and 1 inch wide). They have a rough upper surfaces and margins. Flowers form along a narrow spike. Maidencane forms extensive rhizomes.


There is also algae between these two emergent weeds and copper sulfate was used. The copper worked on one pond and not another. UGA Extension Aquatic Scientist Dr. Gary Burtle says the copper spreads out in an open pond but may be prevented from spreading when heavy weeds mats are present.

Glyphosate works good on grassy weeds. It is good to use around pond edges, and certain formulations are used in the pond. However, much of the efficacy of glyphosate is lost when it touches water. The more leaves out of the water, the better it works. Glyphosate will work better on these maidencane than the watergrass, since most of these watergrass are underwater. Since most watergrass is submerged, imazamox would be a better control option here.

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Filed under Aquatic Environments, Weed Science

Potash Deficiency In Cotton

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We’re seeing signs of potassium deficiency in cotton more and more, but it’s not all bad. The signs are stemphyllium leaf spot. These are the circular spots on the leaves with red borders that may have “shothole” appearance. Where K deficiency is more severe, we see discoloration on the leaf also. UGA Extension Fertility Scientist Dr. Glen Harris says because it is late in the year, we should see more stemphyllium. If the plant is loaded with bolls, it has used up a lot of its potassium. If the plant doesn’t have many bolls, stemphyllium or K deficiency may have occurred earlier and caused more of an issue.

Correcting K Deficiency

UGA recommends putting out K with pre-plant fertilizer. However, even with 90 lb in this field, it may have not been enough. Where a known K deficiency exists, foliar K applications should be considered. Even with foliar K, we may not be putting enough where this stemphyllium is heavy. Two foliar applications of 5 – 10 lbs/K2O in each application during early bloom (1st through 4th week) need to be considered.

Stemphyllium Leaf Spot

Stemphyllium Leaf Spot

Dr. Harris says in most cases, the best way to avoid K deficiency is to:

  1. Soil test
  2. Apply recommended K fertilizer at planting
  3. Consider foliar feeding K during peak bloom

How late is too late to foliar feed?

We’re now pushing 5 – 7 weeks of bloom or more in most fields. Based on research, foliar fertilization is most effective when applied during peak bloom or 4th week of bloom. Foliar feeding during 5th and 6th week of bloom may not be effective depending on cotton variety. Once we hit 7th and 8th week of bloom (and after), foliar feeding is too late – not recommended.

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Creeping Indigo In Monticello

Jefferson County Agent Jed Dillard came across creeping indigo that he hasn’t seen in Monticello. Much has been discussed by Equine vets at UF since it is TOXIC to livestock. Below is some information from put together by Jed:

Creeping indigo is low growing

Creeping indigo is low growing

The plant is a low growing legume with pink blooms somewhat like clover and small bean like seed pods (attachment 2). Leaves contain seven to nine leaflets, and the prostrate stems creep along the soil surface. The plant can also form mats underneath a healthy pasture canopy as shown in this Creeping Indigo Fact Sheet. This will make it even more difficult to find if it migrates to Panhandle pastures.

Creeping indigo (Indigofera spicata) should not be confused with hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta). Hairy indigo can approach waist high, but creeping indigo will barely rise above the toe of your brogans.

Annual lespedeza (Lespedeza striata) (shown in attachment 3, mixed with centipede grass) is similar in appearance, but unrelated and non-toxic. Its prostrate growth habit is similar to creeping indigo, but its leaves are somewhat smaller and have only three leaflets. The stems of the common lespedeza plants I found across the sidewalk were also woodier than the stems of the creeping indigo.

Creeping indigo seed pods

Creeping indigo seed pods


Identification of any toxic plant is the first step in its control. Next, mechanical control may be a feasible option if the population is small when you find it. If you pull or hoe the plants, make sure you destroy any seeds as well as the plants. Seed can be viable surprisingly early and the stem and leaves remain toxic after they die and dry. The plant has a deep tap root, so mechanical control can be challenging.

Chemical control has not been established, but GrazonNext HL at 24 oz. per acre may be effective as it has good control of other legumes. Remember the dead plants in your pasture are still a threat. Manure from animals grazing treated pastures or hay from treated should not be used for compost.

This plant has been a problem in South and Central Florida and much good information on specifics of toxicity and symptoms.


Creeping Indigo Toxicity – Dr. Rob MacKay

Creeping Indigo: A Small, Yet Lethal Plant – Sellers, Carlisle and Wiggins. South Florida Beef Forage Program.

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Filed under Pasture, Weed Science