Monthly Archives: February 2015

Peanut Disease & Nematode Update

UGA Extension Pathologist Dr. Bob Kemerait has new information on diseases and nematodes:

  1. The 2015 Peanut Rx smart phone app is now available for iPhones and for Android phones.  The app has been developed through my program and in cooperation with our Peanut Rx committee.  The app was developed by the ZedX company from Pennsylvania.  The app is available for free at the App Store (iPhones) and Google Play (android phones).  I am hopeful that the app will be widely downloaded and then used by anyone interested in disease management in peanut.  As this is the first season in which the app is available, there will likely be improvements to be made.  Please let me know if you have questions or suggestions for changes and updates.  Additional Power Point instructional material will follow.
  2. A Federal Label was approved for Velum Total earlier this week, according to a representative from Bayer CropScience, and a state label should follow quickly.  This means that peanut (and cotton) growers in Georgia will be able to use Velum Total for management of nematodes and thrips when these crops are planted this season.  Further recommendations will follow.
  3. Priaxor (fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin) from BASF is labeled for use on peanut and will be widely marketed as a replacement for Headline.  Priaxor performed well in a number of trials conducted by county agents.
  4. Elatus (solatenol + azoxystrobin) from Syngenta is not labeled yet, but an EPA label is expected in time for the 2015 field season.  Like Priaxor, Elatus performed well in trials in 2014.

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Filed under Disease, Peanuts

Avoiding Grain Loss When Grazing

Oats 003

Here is some Coker 227 oats grown for seed but are also grazed. A critical decision that is make this time of year is when to stop cows from grazing so plants can produce seed. This decision is somewhat influenced by planting date but mostly by growth stage.

Oats Jointing

Oats Jointing

Small grains germinate and grow as seedlings before tillering. Following the tiller stage, the plant will begin the stem elongation phase. During this phase, the a node, or joint, will form at the base of the stem. This is a thickened area on the stem and is the growing point. If cows graze below the joint (growing point), this plant will not produce seed.

The first thing we want to do is look for joints. The decision to remove cows is based on grazing height and joint position on the stem. If joints are seen on stems but low to the ground and below the grazing height, cows do not need to come off the field yet. If joints are higher position and grazing is lower than joints, it is time to remove the cows. It would be a good idea to avoid grazing on a small area to observe growth the growth stage.

This field was planted in mid-November and is still in the tiller stage. Plants are 4-5 inches in height. We only found a joint on one stem, so this field can be grazed much longer removing cows.

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Filed under Forages, Grain, Livestock

Diesel Prices In 2015

Here are the monthly farm diesel prices for the Southern Atlantic states from 2011-2014. Will we see a different trend this year? UGA Extension Economist Dr. Amanda Smith says,  “Compared to the previous four years, diesel prices have been more stable. Prices have ranged from a low of $3.13 to a high of $3.86 per gallon. There appears to be some seasonality to diesel prices as you can see price fluctuating up and down throughout each year.”

FarmDeiselPrices11-14-A.Smith2015

“Above are farm diesel prices for the Southern Atlantic states from 2011 through 2014 with average prices for each year listed above the chart. The seasonality of diesel price is more apparent in this slide with higher prices during spring and fall and lower prices in summer and winter. 2014 is an exception however, with diesel prices dropping steadily throughout the year.”

DieselFuelPriceIndex-A.Smith2015

“This is the monthly price index for farm diesel fuel. The red bar, set at 100, represents the average price of diesel fuel for the year. Each month’s price index gives the average price in that month as a percentage of the year’s average price. For example, according to the chart the January price index is 98.4. This means the price in January is typically 98.4 percent of the average price of diesel for the year or in other words, is 1.6 percent lower than the year’s average price. This chart tells farmers that based on the behavior of prices during the last four years, the lowest prices for diesel typically come in January, June through August and October through December. Average or above average prices come during February through May and during September.”

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Filed under Economics

How Much To Pay For Cow/Heifer?

We had a great meeting and heard great presentations at the Thomas County Beef Cattle Update on Thursday by UGA Extension Specialist Dr. Jacob Segers and Dr. Curt Lacy.

I wanted to share the UGA Replacement Female Calculator link from Dr. Lacy’s presentation. You can find it on the Southeast Cattle Advisor’s website, then click on “Decision Aids.” That takes you to the UGA Econ page, then scroll down to” UGA Replacement Female Calculator.”

UGAReplacementFemaleCalculator

Beef Cattle Summary from Dr. Lacy:

  • Expect less beef and more meat production in 2015
  • Higher prices
  • Higher profits
  • More heifer retention
Thomas County Beef Cattle Update

Thomas County Beef Cattle Update

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Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus?

 

In our forage crops, we started with bad stands from dry weather at planting . Cold weather in early November and after Christmas has not helped in growth rate. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus is vectored by aphids and could also be causing some of our issues. UGA Extension Forage Scientist Dr. Dennis Hancock says reports of BYD are coming in from South GA.

In some oats, I noticed an abundance of aphids last week. We’re used to counting aphids for grain crops, but we have to also think about forage crop management too. BYDV can severely damage wheat and barley, but oats are more susceptible. UGA Extension Grain Entomologist Dr. David Buntin says, “The best treatment time usually is at full-tiller stage in early to mid-February. But, scout fields for aphids at 25 – 35 days after planting and during warm periods in January.” Especially if these fields were planted earlier, which Dr. Buntin says is more likely to get BYD. Could we may be seeing issues with BYDV earlier than normal? Something we need to keep in mind.

Purpling of leaf is associated with lack of P

Purpling of leaf is associated with lack of P

Nutrient

Also, oats are also more susceptible to cold, and nutrient symptoms may look similar to BYD. When we have cooler temperatures, this slows P movement into the root and we’ll see a purplish color which is textbook phosphorus deficiency. Plant roots have to be in direct contact with P for uptake. This is called “root interception.” Cold temperatures slow the growth of roots and we see this deficiency.  Nutrient take up is different in nitrogen, called “mass flow”.  This is because N is mostly taken up as nitrate in water.

BYD Management

The virus is present in most fields throughout the winter and once we get it, there is nothing that can be done. Here is an excerpt from Dr. Buntin about management of BYD:

“Systemic seed treatments, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin, are available for controlling aphids in the fall and winter and may reduce infection rates of BYD. These seed treatments are more effective in the northern half of the seed treatments have been inconsistent in control and are not recommended for routine use. A single, well-timed insecticide application of the insecticide lambda cyhalothrin, or gamma cyhalothrin also can control aphids, reduce the incidence of BYD and increase yields… A lambda cyhalothrin or gamma cyhalothrin treatment at full tiller can be applied with top-dress nitrogen. OP insecticides, such as dimethoate and methyl parathion, also will control aphids but are not effective in preventing barley yellow dwarf infection.

Planting date is the single most important management practice, with early plantings generally have greater aphid numbers and greater BYD incidence than late plantings.”

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Filed under Disease, Forages

Generic Base

Seminole Crop E News

There has been a lot of confusion surrounding the new farm bill and Generic Base (Old Cotton Base).  Early County Agent, Brian Creswell, has some advice that may clear this up some.

All crops that will be planted in 2015 will be assigned to generic base first. You do not get to designate what you want on your generic base. It will assigned by taking the total number of acres you plant of each crop and dividing that by the total numbers of acres you planted to give you a percentage of that crop. That percentage will be multiplied by your generic base acres and that many acres of the crop will be applied to generic base. Know that it’s clear as mud the following example may clear things up.

 Nathan bases

In this example it shows the total number of acres planted in a covered commodity which is 175 and…

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