We’ve had good harvest weather this week. Wednesday afternoon I was out with Cody Weaver as they were picking his fields. This is first cotton he’s planted and managed. He’s done a very good job with this dryland, DP 1137. In Pavo, they received much more rain than the opposite side of the county. He did good on his PGR management and many times we walked fields counting stink bugs. Here is Cody on the module builder as I drove up. Cody let me pack some cotton until I just about picked up the module, flipped it over and ruined it all (not really).
Monthly Archives: October 2014
Grady County Ag Agent Brian Hayes wrote a good blog post about proper Soil Sampling on the Grady County blog he manages. Soil pH is the most important component of soil fertility since pH is the basis for what nutrients are available. Below is a graph of nutrient availability.
All of our micronutrients become more available as pH decreases, but you lose most primary and secondary nutrients in this case. Somewhere between 5.5 to 6.5 a good range for all nutrients to be available. Of course some crops can withstand lower pH than others. For example, a common nutritional difficiency of pecans is “Rosette” which is zinc deficiency. On the contrary, peanuts are prone to a zinc toxicity. When pH falls, zinc becomes more available and a field of peanuts will show zinc toxicity (Below).
After harvest is also a good time to do nematode samples if there has been an issue in a field. We’re getting toward the end of our recommended sampling time for some crops. Here’s the UGA nematode recommendation chart from the 2014 UGA Pest Management Handbook:
The Georgia Clean Day set for this week in Brooks County Agriculture has been rescheduled and set by the GA Department of Agriculture to November 12th, 2014 from 9:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m. Due to the change in collection date, they will be accepting additional product and extending the pre-registration time frame. There is no additional action required by participants that have submitted their information. If you still need to register for this event, refer to the link below for registration information and submit application information as soon as possible. Please note this change on your calendars and call our office at (229) 263-4103 if you have any questions.
I was out with Jeff and Joseph Matthews on the east side of the county yesterday and they were gathering nuts from Desirable trees. Mr. Jeff is driving the sweeper with flippers to gather nuts creating the windrows. Joseph is driving the harvester right behind him. Conditions are good for harvesting now since we are dry. We are almost too dry as dust reduces vision between trees. These are the first nuts they are picking up, so they are mostly making sure equipment is set right. The harvester was digging into the ground a little and had to be adjusted and had to adjust air flow to keep harvester from loading up. They’ll go back to shaking Stuarts again next week and gathering those next.
Below is a picture of nuts falling into the dump cart:
It’s a little early to know yield and grade numbers. But based upon early-season projections, there are lots of nuts are on the ground and being picked up. Kernel development looked good in most we cracked. Early nuts usually have decent prices. Prices are updated each Tuesday and Thursday throughout the pecan harvest season through the USDA Fed-State Market News Service.
Here is a picture of early planted soybeans last Monday. Leaves are turning yellow and brown and falling off. The beans in the pods are at full maturity. Below is a photo of the same field taken yesterday.
Seminole Ag Agent Rome Ethredge posted about irrigation termination on Seminole Crop E-News saying, You are generally safe to terminate irrigation if you have good soil moisture when the seeds fill the pods and the pods start to change to the yellow color in the top 4 nodes of the plant. Mississippi State also has a good blog post concerning Soybean Irrigation Termination that goes into growth stage specifics.
Weather is great these past couple of weeks for picking cotton in the field. We’ve been busy with trial harvest these last few weeks also. Brooks County Agents Stephanie Holliefield and Ben Shirley were picking their variety trial the week of the Expo. This is one of the statewide on-farm variety trials and was planted on the Thomas/Brooks line just east of Barwick.
We also planted a NexGen on-farm variety trial in the northwest part of the county that Dr. Guy Collins and Seth Williams helped us with. Grower Mat Thompson, Mitchell County Agent Andy Shirley and I planted it May 14th. We picked this trial yesterday. We had three Nex Gen varieties with PHY 499 in the trial. Here are some photos from yesterday:
We’re in the driest part of the county here. Overall, irrigated cotton is okay. Some reports range 2 and up to 2.5 bales. Some growers are saying in spots were it looks like it would be 2 bales, they will pick a bale and a half instead. In this part of the county were we received much less rain, the ground was so dry and even under irrigation, plants were still stressed. Non-irrigated yields here are not as well. Where rained moved through and irrigated fields were planted, yields are pretty good, however.
The Small Grain Performance Tests on the statewide variety testing website have been completed, you can see here – 2014 Small Grain Performance Tests. Variety characteristics presents great information that tells us a lot about disease and insects. This can also be found through that link also.
Below is some variety information UGA Extension Agronomist Dr. Dewey Lee passed out at our Grain Update:
We’ve seen many different pest and environmental issues play out with during this season. A new insect pest has come in the state affecting sorghum (white sugarcane aphids). We confirmed charcoal rot which correlates with hot, dry weather especially post-flowering. Now we are seeing “grain mold” aka “head mold.” The symptoms are the pink, orange or white seeds on the heads infected by Fusarium and black seeds on heads infected by Curvularia, Alternaria or Helminthosporium.
UGA Extension Grain Pathologist Dr. Alfredo Martinez says, “Grain mold is caused by a complex of several fungi including Fusarium, Phoma, Curvularia and some others. High humidity/ rains which coincides with grain maturing can be the main effector of this disease. Nothing can be done at this point in terms of fungicides. Next season, planting date might be an option (trying not to coincide grain maturity with rains), genetic resistance.”
“Head blights and molds can be partially avoided by adjusting planting dates so that plants mature during a period without frequent rains. Some sorghum genotypes are more resistant than others but none are considered to be completely resistant. Although the fungi infect seeds, there is no clear evidence that seed-borne infections greatly influence the occurrence of these fungi on seeds in subsequent crops.” – Common and Important Disease of Grain Sorghum (Dave TeBeest, Terry Kirkpatrick and Rick Cartwright)
Here is a picture of the buying point in Boston. Most peanuts in the county are harvested. Yields have been fairly well in many parts of the county considering the season. Much of the rain we had has come through Thomasville then on to Pavo. Dryland acres through this section have faired okay. There are some good grade reports so far, many in the upper 70s. Lower grades have been reported on fields where rain came after digging and couldn’t get dry.
Many fields in the northwest part of the county did not receive adequate rain or rain didn’t start until a month after planting. These fields need time, but we have to watch vine condition. Based on peanuts we’ve checked this week, we can see they are still moving, but at a slow rate we can see. This is due to night time temps being in the 50’s. When do they shut down completely? UGA Extension Agronomist Dr. Scott Monfort says it takes several days with nighttime temperatures in the 40’s before they shut down. Fortunately, we have only seen one to two days of this. As far as the risk of freezing and digging peanuts, Dr. Monfort says we typically need to be a couple of days ahead of a freeze or a frost with digging or leave them in the ground until frost happens to reduce the risk of frost damage. Frost damage is going to be greater risk the day peanuts are dug since kernel moisture content is high.
We are now planting oats, rye, clover and other forages now. These are generally planted during the month of October for grazing.We are a little early to plan for grain since heads can be damaged by cold later on. This field has been broadcasted with rye after peanuts were harvested which will be used for grazing here soon. We need to be aware of our seeing rates and planting depths. Below is a chart of seeding rates of grasses and legumes:
For legumes, it is important to have innoculants put out with them for nitrogen fixation. Inoculants are live bacteria so they need to be kept cool and moist until planting to get good root nodulation. In some situations were a legume like Crimson Clover is planted in a field which has had clover many seasons, we may not need the inoculant if there is plenty of organic matter. Below is a list of inoculants from the Georgia Forages website.