Monthly Archives: April 2014

Peanut Inoculant Considerations

It’s been a cool and wet winter, and we’re coming out of what was the wettest year on record in many locations.  Here is a refresh on peanut inoculant applications from UGA Agronomist, Dr. Scott Tubbs:

Because of the conditions mentioned above, the rate of survivability of native Bradyrhizobia present in the soil is likely to be much lower than in most years (regardless of how many years it has been since the last time peanut or a cross-inoculating species was grown in a field).  Therefore, I would highly recommend growers to strongly consider the investment in a peanut inoculant at-planting this year, especially in poor draining fields that had standing water for more than a couple days.  When soils are saturated, oxygen is depleted and several things can occur with respect to these bacteria.  First, if heavy rainfall occurred shortly after a liquid inoculant was applied the last time peanuts were grown in a field, it is possible that the concentration of the Bradyrhizobia bacteria was drawn away from seed furrow from dilution or leaching.  Saturated conditions can also kill the bacteria leaving lower native populations for infecting future peanut plantings.  When saturated conditions occur while peanuts are growing in a field, N-fixation is halted since oxygen is needed in this process, but is not readily available in the soil pore space since water occupies all of that volume.

Also keep in mind that the product is listed on the label to be delivered at around 1.0 fl oz per 1,000 linear row feet (may differ slightly depending on which product is selected).  This is developed for single row application.  Inoculant application is not like adjusting seeding rate, where you are pulling half of the amount out and moving it over to the adjacent twin furrow.  With an inoculant, the applied amount needs to be per furrow, therefore a twin row planting inoculant application will double the amount of inoculant applied compared to a single row planting.  I have no data to support using a half-rate of inoculant per furrow to keep the total application rate per acre the same as a single row planting.

Some additional reminders regarding inoculant formulation decisions:

  • When applied at labeled recommendations, the amount of viable cells delivered on a per acre basis does vary by formulation, with the liquid inoculants supplying the most (8.3 x 1011 cells/A), followed by sterile peat products (5.8 x 1011 cells/A), and granular supplying the least (2.4 x 1011 cells/A).  However, this should not be the primary deciding factor on which formulation to select.
  • Sterile peat/powder formulations are only recommended if there is no way of applying the other formulations.  To get good coverage/sticking of the product to the seed, the seed need to be moistened.  This requires drying time to prevent messy planter problems.  When applied dry, there will be inadequate seed coverage.  I have data showing reduced nodulation and yields using this formulation compared to the other formulations.
  • Do not confuse the granular inoculant formulation with the sterile peat/powder formulation, they are not the same.  The granular formulation, while also a dry product, is not applied to the seed prior to planting, it is metered through a dry metering box such as an insecticide/herbicide hopper and placed in-furrow.
  • Regardless of formulation, these are living organisms.  If you want them to remain alive/viable, then don’t leave them sitting in the cab of a hot pickup truck or tractor, nor exposed to direct sunlight.
  • Likewise, since this is a living medium, exposure to certain pesticides designed to kill living organisms (insecticides, fungicides, etc.) may adversely affect the product.  Minimize exposure to such products, and consult the labels/websites/representatives for more information about mixing of products.  There should be minimal concerns of exposure to typical peanut seed treatments, and short-term exposure to common in-furrow fungicides in the case of tank-mixes.  But a chlorine-free water source must be used as the carrier for liquid inoculants.
  • When soil conditions are relatively dry, liquid inoculants will disperse away from the intended target, thus the concentration of Bradyrhizobia near the seedling upon emergence and early season growth when infection should be occurring may be hindered.  The granular formulation will remain at the bottom of the seed furrow, where intended.  Therefore, in non-irrigated conditions with only marginal soil moisture, granular products should be considered.

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Nutsedge At Transplanting

BellPepper-Transplanted 002

Folks were able to get some things done last week before rain Friday. Here are some bell peppers transplanted into plastic with drip irrigation. We’ve already had some nutsedge come up through the plastic. One way to distinguish yellow and purple nutsedge is by the tip of the leaf blade. Yellow nutsedge will taper off at the tip where purple will be more rounded. Also, the yellow nutsedge tubers are more sweet to the taste compared to purple (not that I eat them regularly, but that taste is still in my mouth after Seminole Agent, Rome Ethredge made me eat some one day while he was teaching me the difference). In the situation here, a good control option would be a directed spray application of Sandea (halosulfuron). Check the Sandea label for specific instructions about timing and rate.

Yellow Nutsedge

Yellow Nutsedge

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