Reminder: Cotton Update Monday January 30th

Don’t forget about the UGA Extension Thomas County Cotton Update! We will serve breakfast beginning at 8AM at 1202 Remington Ave, Thomasville, GA. Dr. Camp Hand and Dr. Phillip Roberts will present updates on cotton varieties, agronomic updates, and insect management.

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Thomas County Production Updates

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January 23, 2023 · 3:21 PM

Cattle and Citrus Management During Extreme Cold

For cattle:

Here are a few tips to help cattle through this stretch, especially for those that have started the calving season.

Windbreak:  This may be the biggest factor to help cattle get through the extreme wind chill we will see on Friday.  Cattle will often seek out relief from wind more so than food or water.  This can be stands of trees, stacks of round bales, or man-made structures.  Placing this close to location of feeding will help ensure they find the windbreak, as well as consume the proper amount of calories.

Bedding:  Keeping cattle dry is second most important factor for cattle.  After the large amount of rain many have received since Thanksgiving, most are dealing with mud.  Move cattle to a dry pasture for the next several days.

Nutrition:  Cattle need more calories to maintain their body heat in extreme cold; up to 30% more.  Starting at least 1-2 days prior to the expected weather, plan on offering higher quality hay or feeding 4-6 pounds of supplement.  If cattle are not already receiving corn, do not start feeding straight corn. I would recommend that the supplement be greater than 70% TDN and 15% CP.   A few simple options:

  • Whole cottonseed
  • Dried distillers grains
  • Corn gluten feed
  • 50:50  of corn gluten feed and soybean hulls
  • 33:33:33 of corn gluten feed, corn,  and soybean hulls
  • Commercial feed

Water:  Most waterers will freeze in this weather.  In parts of north Georgia, it will remain below freezing for more than 48 hours.  Be sure to check water sources to be sure cattle have access.

For citrus:

The upcoming freeze events will be one of the biggest challenges faced so far by Georgia and northern Florida citrus growers.  In past years we have experienced one or two nights of temperatures in the lower 20’s or possibly upper teens in some areas.  For the most part citrus trees have survived.  One thing different about this event will the number or hours below freezing with highs on Saturday and Sunday in the mid 30’s.  Our trees have not experienced that duration below freezing and they have not experience 4 nights in a row down to 20 degrees. One good thing is that trees should be more acclimated to cold temperatures since they have we have had cold temperatures leading up until now.  There are many factors I have listed below that influence cold-hardiness. 

  • Type of citrus tree 
  • Freezing temperature reached
  • Duration of the minimal temperature
  • How well the plant became hardened or conditioned before freezing temperatures occurred (the tissue freezing point of a hardened citrus plant may be five to six degrees lower than an unhardened plant)
  • Wet or Dry Plant (killing temperature is two to four degrees lower for a dry citrus tree so dry trees can withstand lower temperature)
  • Wet soil holds more heat so wetting the ground before the freezing event is recommended
  • Age of the plant (a young plant cannot withstand as much cold as a more mature tree).
  • Rootstock selection.  Some rootstocks like trifoliate and trifoliate hybrids go dormant quicker than non trifoliates
  • Trees that still have fruit on them are more susceptible to freezes
  • Amount of N in tree (don’t fertilize with too much N especially after August)
  • Poorly managed and stressed trees due to insects, disease, or nutrient deficiencies are more vulnerable to freezes
  • Planting location.  High ground on a south facing slope is best
  • Trees without windbreaks are more likely to experience freeze damage

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Citrus Update

Call 12293335185 to register for Thursday’s meeting.

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Southeast Georgia Pecan Grafting Clinic

Please RSVP by Friday, April 22!

Contact:

Andrew Sawyer
SE Georgia Area
Pecan Agent
agsawyer@uga.edu
912-512-3030

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FINAL UPW TRAINING TOMORROW

Using Pesticides Wisely Trainings


All applicators who are planning to apply Engenia, Tavium, and Xtendimax must attend UPW Trainings this year prior to April 15, 2022. However, those that attended a UGA Extension Weed Management Update in 2022, signed in, and received credit do not have to attend UPW Training. Weed Management Updates were held in the following counties between January 10th and February 17th: Pierce, Wayne, Emanuel, Jefferson, Burke, Cotton Commission Annual Meeting – Weed Training section, Lee, Macon/Taylor/Peach/Houston, Calhoun, Mitchell/Baker, Grady, Tift, Colquitt, Irwin/Ben Hill, Worth, Berrien, Screven, Bulloch, Terrell, Webster, Sumter, Dooly, Pulaski/Wilcox, Appling, and Tattnall/Evans/Chandler. All applicators of Engenia, Tavium, & XtendiMax herbicides must also have a private pesticide license. There will not be an extension or issuance of the special applicators license training that has been offered in the past, so all applicators must obtain their private pesticide license.

UPW trainings will be held at the Thomas County Extension Office at 9:30AM on the following dates:

Wednesday, March 16

Wednesday, March 23

Wednesday, March 30

Wednesday, April 6

Wednesday, April 13

Multiple dates have been available for our grower’s convenience and due to the size limitations of our meeting space. To register or if you have any questions please call UGA Extension Thomas County.

For information on how to apply for a Private Pesticide Applicators License please visit: https://extension.uga.edu/content/dam/extension/programs-and-services/pesticide-safety-education/documents/Step-by-Step_PAT_Course_Ordering_Instructions_Aug%2020.pdf

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Pesticide Clean Day – May 3, 2022 – Houston County

Pre-register prior to April 28, 2022! This program is free for private and commercial pesticide applicators. Contact your local UGA Extension Office for more information or go to http://agr.georgia.gov/georgia-clean-day.aspx.

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Paraquat Usage Requirements

Have you completed the EPA Paraquat Training? As required by EPA’s Paraquat Dichloride Human Health Mitigation Decision and amended paraquat dichloride (a.k.a. paraquat) product labels, certified applicators must successfully complete an EPA-approved training program before mixing, loading, and/or applying paraquat. The training provides important information about paraquat’s toxicity, new label requirements and restrictions, and the consequences of misuse.

A record of those who have taken the training and when it expires can be found here: https://www.agr.georgia.gov/Data/Sites/1/media/ag_plantindustry/pesticides/files/training/Paraquat-Training-GA-3-21-21.pdf

More information and a link to the training can be found on this page: https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-worker-safety/paraquat-dichloride-training-certified-applicators

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Using Pesticides Wisely Trainings

All applicators who are planning to apply Engenia, Tavium, and Xtendimax must attend UPW Trainings this year prior to April 15, 2022. However, those that attended a UGA Extension Weed Management Update in 2022, signed in, and received credit do not have to attend UPW Training. Weed Management Updates were held in the following counties between January 10th and February 17th: Pierce, Wayne, Emanuel, Jefferson, Burke, Cotton Commission Annual Meeting – Weed Training section, Lee, Macon/Taylor/Peach/Houston, Calhoun, Mitchell/Baker, Grady, Tift, Colquitt, Irwin/Ben Hill, Worth, Berrien, Screven, Bulloch, Terrell, Webster, Sumter, Dooly, Pulaski/Wilcox, Appling, and Tattnall/Evans/Chandler. All applicators of Engenia, Tavium, & XtendiMax herbicides must also have a private pesticide license. There will not be an extension or issuance of the special applicators license training that has been offered in the past, so all applicators must obtain their private pesticide license. 

UPW trainings will be held at the Thomas County Extension Office at 9:30AM on the following dates:

Wednesday, March 16

Wednesday, March 23

Wednesday, March 30

Wednesday, April 6

Wednesday, April 13

Multiple dates are available for our grower’s convenience and due to the size limitations of our meeting space. To register or if you have any questions please call UGA Extension Thomas County.

For information on how to apply for a Private Pesticide Applicators License please visit: https://extension.uga.edu/content/dam/extension/programs-and-services/pesticide-safety-education/documents/Step-by-Step_PAT_Course_Ordering_Instructions_Aug%2020.pdf

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Freezing Temperatures On The Way: What does this mean for pecans?

Mar 11, 2022 | Written by Lenny Wells

After a couple of weeks of 80 degree temperatures we are facing low temperatures in the mid 20s this weekend. Forecasts call for temps anywhere from 25 degrees to 28 degrees from middle Georgia down to Valdosta. Temps further north in the Athens area may get down to 23 degrees. What does this mean for pecan trees?

The good news is that we have not seen much bud break yet. We only see a very small percentage of buds even swelling at this point. I have had a few photos sent my way of some buds just beginning to break. The first sign that pecan buds are beginning to expand is a bud stage that is termed outer scale split. This stage is characterized by the outer covering (or scale) that surrounds a dormant bud splitting open when the bud inside starts to expand. Eventually the outer scale is pushed off the end of the bud to reveal a tight green bud underneath. Dormant pecan buds can easily handle 24 degrees but green pecan tissues freeze at around 26 degrees. On most trees, pecan bud development has not yet advanced to a stage that I would be overly concerned about.

If you have buds that have started to elongate, especially if they have pushed the outer scale off completely, even if the green buds are still somewhat compressed tightly, they could still be at risk of damage if temps get down to 26 degrees. But we haven’t seen many trees at this stage yet.

The only trees I have seen with foliage expansion to date are trees in nurseries. Usually these are the first to break bud. Seedlings usually start first and then some early grafted varieties begin.

Whether its in the orchard or nursery, any foliage that has expanded will likely take a hit if we see temps in the 26-28 degree range for a few hours. Fortunately as I said, we havent seen much expanded foliage yet and much of what we have seen has been on nursery trees or newly planted trees. Even if you have foliage expanding in this situation and it gets killed by the freeze, that foliage will regrow as long as the wood is not damaged.

Damage to the pecan wood is of some concern for nursery trees and moreso for newly planted orchard trees and those in the 1-3 yr old range. The most common injury on such trees occurs when the sun warms tree bark during the day and then the bark rapidly cools after sunset. These abrupt fluctuations are most common on south or southwest sides of trunks and branches, and they may kill the inner bark in those areas. Young and/or thin-barked trees are most susceptible to this type of injury especially as the sap begins to flow. Injury may not be visible initially and often shows up a few days to weeks later and will be detected by a browning of the cambium layer as you cut into the bark of the tree. Healthy cambium tissue will appear green. Sometimes the injured area of the trunk takes on a sunken or water soaked appearance. Trunk protectors will help minimize this type of injury on young orchard trees.

Rapid expansion and contraction of water within the wood and bark, particularly under falling night temperatures, can also sometimes result in cracks that may appear on trunks of young trees and also on the branches of older trees. These may be a few inches long and are often found on the southwest side of the tree. These cracks may heal over a little in the summer and can re-open again in winter.

When we have freeze injury to young trees, it sometimes is not detected for a considerable length of time, sometimes 2-3 years, as there is often enough healthy cambium to keep the trees going to a point and then they outgrow the cambium they have left, which can no longer support them, causing the trees to collapse. When this occurs the foliage usually turns brown and the tree may die suddenly. This usually shows up in May or June as the heat and water demand ramp up.

Overall, I expect damage to be minimal , if any to mature pecan trees. We will likely see some injury to young (newly planted-3 yr) trees in some areas if temperatures drop as low as we see forecast and they remain there for several hours.

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