We were out looking at longleaf pine seedlings established on a plantation south of town. They have just planted around 12,000 longleaf pines. They are planting at 720 trees per acre. The trees are placed 6 freet from one another and rows are 10 feet apart. This will allow space for mowing for weed control. Also note that the plug is a little out of the soil. This is to keep soil from covering that terminal bud. We don’t want to be too much out of the soil for concerns of losing water either. Once the trees are established, then weed control options will be considered.
Not only do we need to follow the herbicide label and use recommended herbicides at seedling stage, we need to watch closely about our timing. We need to wait at least two months to apply herbicide over the top of long leaf and slash pines (2 inches of white feeder root growth from 5 laterals), and one month for loblolly. Here are some thoughts on applying herbicides to newly planted pines for herbaceous weed control from UGA Extension Forester Dr. David Moorhead:
- Be sure that the planted seedlings have started active root growth before herbicides are applied. Dig several seedling up and check for root growth into the surrounding soil. Cold temperature, dry soils or excessively wet soils can delay the start of new root growth. These photos (below) show root plugs of containerized longleaf seedlings. The plug on the left is a newly planted plug where root growth has not emerged from the plug. On the right, the seedling has active root growth into the surrounding soil – at this point it is safe to apply herbaceous weed control. With bareroot seedlings new roots should also be growing into the surrounding soil.
Photo by Dr. David Moorhead-UGA
- Be sure that you select the proper herbicide for the pine species you are treating. Loblolly, longleaf and slash pine each have varying tolerance/sensitivity to the various herbicides used for herbaceous weed control. Some herbicides cannot be used for some species of pines. Check the herbicide label to be sure.
- DO NOT add a surfactant to the herbicide used for over-the-top herbaceous weed control. While the Arsenal AC formulation of imazapyr can be safe applied over-the-top of pine seedlings at recommended rates, the same herbicide formulated as Chopper has a surfactant added and will damge/kill seedlings if applied over-the-top.
- Take soil samples to determine pH and soil organic levels and to determine soil texture as herbicide selection and/or rates may need to be adjusted according to soil conditions.
- Avoid treatments when seedlings are stressed from cold, dry, or excessively wet conditions.
- See the following links for specific information on applications, and herbicides:
Our wheat is in the tillering stage, and now is time to sidedress. Wheat needs between 100 and 130 lbs of N in a growing season. We do not put all N out in the fall because we do not want plants to grow too much which will injury head during cold weather. The demand for N is low during the fall but increased just before stem elongation. We wait until January and February to put out most of our N before stem elongation. We put out recommended N at planting then finish our total N during side dressing. We count tillers and determine if we sidedress one or two times.
These tillers are like multiple stems that will each have a head. More tillers equals give us more grain heads which means more kernels and higher yield. Below is a picture of the tillers on this plant.
If wheat is drilled (usually 7.5 inch rows) then 19 feet of the row would equal a square foot. This field was broadcast, so I just checked random square foot spots. I count all tillers on the plants within that square foot. If we do not have 100 tillers per square foot, then we split side dress applications to the last week of January and the next application the second week of February. If we have 100 or so tillers per square foot and good growth and don’t see much yellowing of the older foliage, we can wait until the 2nd week of February to put out all of our sidedress fertilizer.
Below is a picture of nitrogen deficient leaves. Since N is mobile in the plant, the lower leaves will turn yellow first. N and K are mobile in the soil also and will leach with rains.
Nitrogen deficient leaves of wheat
Filed under Fertility, Grain
I checked a small grain field yesterday afternoon and was noticing abundance of aphids. They were hit or miss a few week ago, but I am now seeing aphids each spot I stop in the field. Aphids are soft-bodied insects in the “true bug” family (Hemiptera) which means they have piercing-sucking mouthparts. They suck juice from the plant but are also disease transmitters. Barley yellow dwarf virus is a disease they vector. Wheat can be damaged but oats are more susceptible. BYD is present in most fields throughout GA and yield losses of 5-15% are common. Yield losses are greatest when plants are infected as seedlings.
Wheat is tillering good now and standing 6-10 inches tall. At this growth stage, our threshold is 6 aphids per row foot. The field I was in was broadcasted, so its more difficult to count. At every location I checked, I was seeing 1 or 2 aphids on a plant. Since this field is at threshold, should be treated. The aphids I found were bird cherry-oat aphids, which UGA Extension Grain Entomologist Dr. David Buntin says is the main species that transmits BYD virus in the winter. A lambda cyhalothrin pyrethroid such as Karate or similar product is recommended to treat for these aphids.
Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid
Here is the latest issue of Cotton Marketing News from UGA Extension Economist Dr. Don Shurley:
The Thomas County Extension office is hosting a Beef Cattle Update held on February 5th at the Emergency Services Building in Thomasville.
New UGA Extension Beef Cattle Specialist Dr. Jacob Segers will present an update on beef cattle issues and nutritional concerns. UGA Extension Livestock Economist Dr. Curt Lacy will give update on economic situation and what is expected to come.
The EMS building is located at 1202 Remington Avenue in Thomasville. Please park in the back of the building and the back door will be open. You can turn in the drive right past Thomasville National Bank. Use the parking behind the EMS building.
A sponsored meal is included, so please contact the Thomas County Extension Office at 225-4130 or e-mail me at email@example.com to help with head count.
Here are some soybeans down below Metcalf that were not able to be harvested since a creek washed out the road leading to these back fields. We wondered about aflatoxin issues but UGA Extension Pathologist Dr. Bob Kemerait says this is generally not an issue with soybeans. Because of the wet and dry conditions soybeans went through, the issue is going to be quality. UGA Extension Soybean Agronomist Dr. Jared Whitaker says this shriveling is a sign the beans have went through periods of wet and dry conditions. There is some mold is on the grain but not an issue. These beans are to be sold, so it maybe best to take some to the buyer and let them make an assessment. The quality is not as bad as we thought and would probably be some deduction when bought.
Here is some wheat from last week that was showing some cold burn on the leaves. We got down to 21 degrees on Jan 8th. This burn will not be a problem in wheat since we are so early in growth stage and heads have not emerged. The main issue is slowing down growth. With forage crops, cold duration can hurt us since we are so slow in establishing our forage. Seminole County Agent Rome Ethredge talked about leaves farthest from the ground have the worst damage. This is because water has a high specific heat, therefore moist soils will hold heat better. We may also see more damage where soils are dry for this same reason.